Spotlight Botswana… Part 3: Opportunities and Threats 


This feature is the third of four parts written to inform readers and particularly political thinkers on the election issues using a SWOT Analysis. In this feature the focus is on opportunities and threats. Part four will draw conclusions from the entire process. Reference will be made to the SWOT table which published last week and is downloadable from this link for later use by readers. In addition to your best digital paper will also add a few suggestions as to how to mitigate the threats. The issues are organized by STEEP – that is social technical economic environmental and political.

Social Issues 

Botswana’s peaceful political landscape presents an opportunity to address societal challenges and enhance overall well-being. To maximize this, emphasis on family-centered values can further strengthen social cohesion and stability, countering potential strains from rapid urbanization. Despite political stability, rapid urbanization may strain traditional family structures causing high incidents of abuse, rape, alcoholism, divorce suicide and drug abuse. Botswana is very lowly placed in the World Happiness Index. Mitigation involves emphasizing and adapting family-centered values to urban settings, ensuring continued social support networks. The opportunity to engage globally comes with the challenge of potential cultural shifts away from traditional values. Addressing economic disparities is an opportunity to ensure equal access to education and healthcare, contributing to sustainable development. Mitigating potential social discontent requires a focus on resolving unaddressed challenges despite political stability. Unaddressed social challenges pose a threat to stability despite political peace. Proactive measures to identify and address societal issues can prevent the emergence of dystopian elements. Promoting ethical practices can foster a more cohesive and inclusive society, contributing to overall well-being. This involves continuous efforts to embed ethical values in various sectors, creating a foundation for sustained growth. The need for economic growth should not overshadow the importance of preserving local languages and cultures. Initiatives to balance economic pursuits with cultural preservation are essential.


GABORONE 21 November 2019, Mascom Wireless launches 4.5G network service in Gaborone on 21 November 2019. Niall Downey, Head of Fixed Services briefs the media on the upgraded service during the launch. One of the internet user using the Mascom service. Pic:MONIRUL BHUIYAN/PRESS PHOTO



Opportunities will result from rapid digitalisation and embracing the fourth industrial revolution or 4IR. With increased reliance on technology, addressing cybersecurity vulnerabilities is essential. Investments in cybersecurity measures and awareness programs can mitigate potential threats to data security and privacy. The largest threat is the slow and expensive internet, unreliable power supply, and minimal research and development may hinder technological progress. Addressing these infrastructure challenges is vital for fostering innovation and staying competitive on a global scale. Enhancing digital literacy and skills for all citizens is a technical opportunity that can contribute to overall economic development. Initiatives to expand technology education should be prioritized for comprehensive skill development. Research and development spending at 0.2% of GDP is very low compared to other nations and will certainly undermine opportunities expected to arise from Vision 2036 aspirations. The lack of emphasis on research and development poses a technical threat to technological breakthroughs and competitiveness. Botswana should prioritize and invest in R&D to ensure sustained technical innovation. Enhancing digital literacy and skills for all citizens is an economic opportunity that can contribute to overall workforce development. Initiatives to expand technology education should be prioritized for comprehensive skill development, fostering economic growth. Promoting economic growth and entrepreneurship through e-commerce and other on-line platforms is a technical opportunity. Botswana should actively embrace and invest in modern online platforms to leverage these economic potentials. Utilizing technology to modernize farming practices can significantly increase agricultural output and productivity. Technical advancements in agriculture can play a vital role in ensuring food security and economic stability, but this is threatened by climate change related extreme weather events. Mitigation and adaptation to the reality of climate change requires a technical response.

Economic Issues 

Diamond revenues remain central to generating development opportunities. Economic fluctuations on the global stage can impact diamond revenue and overall economic performance. Diversifying the economy through technological initiatives can mitigate the impact of such external technical challenges. Yet lack of economic diversification poses a real threat to the future economic health of Botswana. Investment opportunities should arise from Botswana’s unique political and economic stability. However, growth is threatened by insufficient foreign direct investment FDI. Focusing on improving the technical investment climate and regulatory frameworks can attract more FDI. Diversifying the economy and creating jobs through tourism and ecotourism is a technical opportunity. Strategic technical investments in these sectors can boost economic resilience and sustainability. Significant opportunities exist in Pan-African Trade following eventual ratification of the AfCFTA in 2023.  Limited engagement in Pan-African trade poses a technical threat to economic growth and diversification. Exploring and expanding technical trade opportunities within the continent can mitigate this challenge. Creating a more business-friendly environment by easing excessive regulations is a technical opportunity to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) and promote entrepreneurship. Streamlining regulatory processes is crucial for fostering a conducive technical business climate. Enhancing workforce productivity and economic growth through increased labour force participation is a profound opportunity. Yet, their persists a low labour force participation rate is a technical threat that may lead to the underutilization of human resources. Mitigation of many economic threats may be found through broadening horizons beyond Botswana borders, expanding markets and business opportunities.

Environmental Issues 

Reducing carbon emissions and dependence on non-renewable sources through renewable energy is an environmental opportunity. Strategic investments in sustainable energy can contribute to environmental conservation and long-term energy goals. The limited adoption of renewable energy poses an environmental threat, hindering progress towards sustainable energy goals. Promoting and incentivizing renewable energy adoption is crucial for achieving environmental sustainability. Enhancing protection efforts through the strict enforcement of environmental regulations is an environmental opportunity. This ensures a proactive approach to environmental conservation. Despite regulations, unsustainable mining practices pose an environmental threat, leading to habitat destruction and pollution from coal bed methane or oil development in important biospheres.  Strict enforcement of regulations and sustainable mining practices are crucial to mitigate these environmental risks. Reducing human-animal conflicts and promoting coexistence through sustainable practices is an environmental opportunity. Expanding these practices contributes to biodiversity conservation and environmental harmony. Climate change and its impacts pose an existential environmental threat, exacerbating existing challenges despite signatory status to international agreements. Proactive measures to adapt and mitigate the impacts of climate change are essential. Promoting genuine environmental efforts and transparency by addressing greenwashing is an environmental opportunity. This ensures that environmental initiatives are credible and trustworthy. The persistence of greenwashing poses an environmental threat, by undermining international confidence and public trust in environmental initiatives. Addressing this issue is crucial to maintain public support for genuine environmental efforts.


Political Issues 

Empowering citizens to critically assess information through media literacy is a political opportunity that enhances press freedom. Informed citizens contribute to a vibrant democratic society. The concentration of media ownership poses a political threat, impacting press diversity and freedom of information. Addressing this issue is essential to ensure a diverse and free press. Fostering a more diverse and inclusive political landscape is a political opportunity that ensures representation of various viewpoints. This contributes to effective policy-making and democratic processes. Political polarization poses a threat to effective policy-making and compromises democratic processes. Fostering a culture of dialogue and compromise is crucial to mitigate this political challenge. Mitigation can be found through contemporising the constitution and electoral reform such as proportional representation. Challenges in the enforcement of legal frameworks pose a threat to the protection of civil liberties. Addressing these challenges is essential to uphold democratic values. Enhancing public engagement in political processes and democracy through civic education is a political opportunity. Informed and engaged citizens strengthen democratic values. Enhancing the enforcement of legal frameworks is a political opportunity that protects civil liberties. Strong legal mechanisms ensure the preservation of democratic values. Internationally Botswana has a good reputation that it must exploit to the full. The threat will come internally from questionable governance. Government must look at the bigger picture to enhance its global position that will undoubtedly generate social and economic benefits. Botswana support of multilateralism is an opportunity that can only be enhanced by supporting the reform of the UN. There is a demographic but diminishing dividend that threatens to become a political risk if left unaddressed. Safeguarding traditional knowledge and values through cultural preservation initiatives is a political opportunity. Preserving cultural diversity contributes to societal harmony. Creating innovative solutions to community challenges through social entrepreneurship is a political opportunity. This fosters socioeconomic development and addresses societal issues.

In part three of the Spotlight using SWOT analysis covering opportunities and threats several strategic opportunities have been highlighted which should be of interest to policy and party manifesto writers and the electorate in general. These have been presented together with the mitigation measures needed to address the evident threats that exist to undermine them.